Gas/Electricity - Efficiency of electricity generation by PLN is not optimal to be one of the problems that are not only faced by PT PLN as the operator but also by countries that bear the greater the subsidy. Low efficiency is driven by the amount of electricity production using fuel energy relatively more expensive than other energy sources.
PT State Electricity Company (PLN) to produce electricity with few energy resources such as water, coal, geothermal, coal gasification, fuel oil (BBM), biofuels, and natural gas. The use of multiple energy sources simultaneously is due to PLN's power plants consist of several types such as hydro, diesel, PLTGU, and Geothermal Power Plant.
Each of these energy sources generate electricity production cost is different. In the process, the generation of electricity using oil energy (fuel) is felt more expensive making it difficult for the efficiency of electricity production by PLN.
In fact, the used fuel is subsidized by the state, so that automatic state's financial burden. This is what makes energy use cheaper the more urgent. In addition, fuel consumption is also considered not to have a high level of sustainability because the fuel is not renewable energy.
Therefore, the development of electricity generation is directed to the current energy sources such as coal is cheaper. The 10,000 MW power development projects (Mega Watt) first stage, PLN developed a number of plants with coal energy sources.
10,000 MW power project in the second stage, the plant was built began to use energy sources other than the coal gas, and geothermal energy that is renewable and water. The role of gas as an energy power generation in Indonesia is strategic because it is more flexible than hydropower and geothermal.
The use of gas has good potential because Indonesia is one of the producers of natural gas is puite large. This paper will discuss the efficiency of electricity production by PLN and choices of energy sources for electricity generation in Indonesia.
Production of electricity using less fuel efficient than the Coal and Gas
The use of fuel as an energy source that includes HSD and MFO power plant by PT PLN proved to be inefficient compared to other energy sources such as Coal, Natural Gas, and Coal Gasification.
According to data from PLN, the production cost of High Speed Diesel (HSD), reaching the highest recorded Rp1667.24 / KWh according to the estimated realizable in 2010 and is expected to reach USD 1727.57 / KWh in 2011.
Other fuel energy that is MFO (Marine Fuel Oil) reached Rp1279.05 / KWh according to the estimated realizable in 2010 and Rp1262.43 / KWh on Corporate Work Plan Budget (RKAP) 2011. Meanwhile, IDO (diesel oil) reached 1272.52 / KWh according to the estimated realizable in 2010 and Rp1267.03 / KWh on the Company's Budget Plan (RKAP) 2011. Both types of fuel is only slightly less than a generation biofuels.
Difference in average production cost of the fuel with coal or gas is quite high, reaching approximately Rp1100 / KWh. When compared with the energy of Coal Gasification (GBB), the difference is even higher since GBB is the cheapest gas energy.
Electricity production costs of fuel weighed PLN
Relatively less efficient use of fuel, while the portions are quite large in the national electricity production makes fuel cost Gas/Electricity portion of total energy costs become large. The share of fuel costs account for about 60 percent of total electricity generation cost.
In 2010 the cost of fuel use for electricity to reach Rp 53.6 trillion, with its share reaching 64.5 percent. In 2011, a decline in the generation portion of the fuel that lakes the cost down. The cost is Rp 51.3 trilin or 57.1 percent of the total.
Largest fuel costs contributed by HSD which reached Rp 42.5 trillion or 51.1 percent in 2010 and Rp 38.5 trillion or 42.8 percent in 2011. MFO cost of production in 2010 reached Rp11, 1 trillion or 13.4 percent of the total whereas in 2011 its value increased to Rp12, 8 trillion, or 14.3 percent of the total cost.
Meanwhile, despite the large share of production that is more than 70 percent, but the portion of the cost of generation from non-fuel energy is smaller. Recorded portion of the non-fuel costs in 2010 reached 35.5 percent and in 2011 to 42.9 percent. This rise was fueled by an increase in the share of production in that year. Gas/Electricity
The value of the energy cost of non-fuel production in 2010 reached Rp29, 5 billion. Increase in value in 2011 to Rp38, 5 billion due to increased electricity production from non-fuel energy.
Large share of electricity production cost of fuel is PLN's financial burden due to the production of electricity from the fuel are not comparable. Carrying electricity from the fuel production amounted to only 25 percent of total production Gas/Electricity